The most important SECRET according to Marcus Aurelius (stoicism)


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[Music] Marcus Aurelius was born in Rome in the year 121 ad his father Marcus anus Varys was a high ranking political official in the Roman Empire and his mother Deisha Lucilla came from an influential aristocratic family with a commendable reputation from the good reputation and commendable memory of my father I learned to conduct myself with discretion and man less Marcus Aurelius never really knew his father only his reputation because Marcus aurelius’s father died when he was only 3 years old thus his upbringing was entrusted to his mother and his paternal grandfather also named Marcus anus Veris from my mother I learned to respect the gods to be generous to all to refrain not only from committing evil Deeds but also from thinking them to be moderate with food and to stay away from the opulent life that the rich boast of from my grandfather I learned to live by Honest principles and not to get angry easily thus mother and grandfather raised Marcus Aurelius and prepared him for political life instructing him in rhetoric oratory logic and of course stoic philosophy while stoicism has its roots in ancient Athens when the Romans conquered Greek territory they assimilated the ideas of Athenian philosophers and adopted and adapted stoicism very well Marcus aelius from adolescence was instructed in Roman stoicism which at that time had CA and epicus as its main representatives in Broad Strokes stoicism holds that there is a higher intelligence that governs the universe with benevolence and that everything that happens in the world is part of the divine plan of that higher intelligence and that to be happy humans must learn to accept everything we cannot control and strive to achieve what we can control which is moral virtue our our attitudes thoughts words and actions that we can control and we must take it to a virtuous degree these were the ideas that shaped Marcus Aurelius during his Youth and that he cherished throughout his life and he would indeed need to have a sharp mind because at the age of 15 he was adopted by Emperor antoninus PAs to be his successor the adoption was partly due to antonin’s Pi having no male heirs and needing to ensure the political and economic stability not only of the Roman Empire but also of his family antoninus Pius was married to one of Marcus aurelius’s aunts and not having male children he decided to adopt him and also marry him to one of his biological daughters but just in case antoninus pias also adopted a 7-year-old boy named Lucius who also came from a very powerful family whose father had recently died in this way Marcus Aurelius and Lucius became stepbrothers and both were prepared to serve the the Roman Empire when antoninus pasus died Marcus Aurelius was 40 years old and the plan was for him to be named emperor of Rome however here Marcus Aurelius did something unprecedented he strongly insisted that to accept the investure his brother Lucius would have to be named co-emperor for the first time in Rome two men held the Reigns of the state simultaneously many historians think that Marcus aelius did this to prevent his Stepbrother from assassinating him to access the throne and indeed there had been many cases in Rome of Emperors being assassinated by their own relatives in the struggle for power thus the Step Brothers ruled Rome for 9 years until lucius’s death from smallpox during a military campaign Marcus Aurelius continued to rule the Empire until his death at the age of 58 and is remembered as one of the greatest Roman emperors he managed military conflicts plagues and natural natural disasters that Afflicted the Empire during his Reign but in addition to being an excellent ruler he is remembered as the author of one of the most famous works in stoic philosophy the meditations a work in 12 Parts containing aphorisms and loose paragraphs that do not follow any order but have as their guiding thread to express what Marcus Aurelius understood about stoic philosophy the thing is apparently Marcus aelius never intended for this text to be published apparently it was a manuscript that he wrote for himself to remind himself of the lessons he had learned in his youth from senca epicus and other philosophers whom he found worth reading reading Marcus aurelius’s meditations is like reading the private notebook of an emperor who is reminding himself that he must remain faithful to the teachings of stoic philosophy after his death someone must have taken that private manuscript and some copies were made that circulated clandestinely until in 1558 the printed version of the book we know today appeared for the first time and many say it is their favorite book the book contains many ideas from various philosophical currents other than stoicism but today I want to focus on explaining three ideas that in my opinion Marcus aelius expresses constantly and also quite powerfully maintaining calmness fulfilling our obligation as citizens of the world and remembering how brief life is we begin with maintaining calmness in life things happen that anger or sadden us but for stoics suc coming to these emotions is evidence that a person has not yet understood the nature of the world Marcus Aurelius as an aspirant to wisdom sought to maintain mental peace in the face of what he considered Adverse Events in his political and personal life from natural disasters and attacks by Barbarian armies to the death of three of his children and his wife to maintain calmness he contemplated two different perspectives on how the world works if it depends on you why do you do it but if it depends on another against whom do you get angry is it not the Adams or the gods paying attention here and in other similar paragraphs Marcus Aurelius is debating between two different philosophical positions when he poses this dichotomy between gods or atoms he is referring to stoicism and epicurian ism stoicism posits that the world is part of a great Unity whose Destiny is already predetermined by a benevolent Divinity a higher intelligence God on the other hand we have epicurian ISM a philosophical current that maintains that everything that happens in the world is the product of the random movement of atams and that the gods have nothing to do with the events of the world Marcus Aurelius as we know is a stoic however he also feels great respect for the the ideas of epicurus and is constantly debating between these two positions either everything that happens is part of a great divine order a great plan of God or everything that happens is the product of chance and there is no divine order only chaos Marcus aelius as a good stoic chooses to believe in the existence of a benevolent God who governs the world for those who ask where have you seen the gods or how do you know that they exist to give them worship reply first they are susceptible to our eyes besides one has not seen one’s own soul and yet one respects it in the same way since one experiences everywhere the effects of the powers of the Gods I know with certainty that they exist and for the same reasons I venerate them however Marcus Aurelius considers that even if the gods did not exist even if everything were the product of the random movement of atoms it would still be pointless to lose one’s calmness for example let’s revisit the paragraph We presented at the beginning of the segment if it depends on you why do you do it but if it depends on another against whom do you get angry is it not the atams or the Gods in one way or another it is madness there is no need to be angry at anything if you can amend the problem then strive to do so but if you cannot what benefit do you get from being irritated what is in my power to improve I must Endeavor to improve but what is is not in my power belongs either to God or to chance if I believe there is a benevolent God who am I to question his divine plan even if the things that happen in the world and in my life go against my personal preferences I must understand that they are part of God’s divine plan that everything is as it should be now if I do not believe in the gods and think that everything is the product of chance then it also makes no sense for for me to be saddened or angered because the universe is as it is chaotic it would be like shouting at the sun just because I am hot it is madness fulfilling our obligation as citizens of the world Marcus Aurelius as Emperor had to deal with many people people with flawed characters people who defamed him people who wanted to see him fall and even some audacious individuals who conspired against him however for stoics like Marcus Aurelius it makes no sense to be offended by the misguided actions of others as these are the product of their ignorance in the face of an ignorant person a stoic cannot be offended but must forgive and try to correct them if possible whenever someone angers hates or speaks ill of you penetrate into their poor souls observe what kind of people they are you will see that you should not be distressed by what they think of you you however you must be benevolent to them because by Nature they are your friends being stoic has nothing to do with being individualistic quite the contrary the stoic is thinking about how to help others even those who are not on the path of virtue I cannot be angry with my relative or hate him for we are born to cooperate just like the feet hands eyelids and rows of upper and lower teeth to act therefore as adversaries to one another is contrary to Nature sometimes it is difficult to help another if you believe that the other has nothing to do with you that is why stoics like Marcus Aurelius relied on the idea of seeing all Humanity as members of a single City My City and my homeland as antoninus is Rome but as a man the world consequently what benefits these cities is my only good stoics have broad perspective Ives they do not only focus on their personal well-being their families their communities or even their countries they are thinking about the welfare of humanity although for political reasons they were born in one country their great nation is the Cosmopolis the city composed of the entire Cosmos governed by God and inhabited by Humanity by recognizing themselves as citizens of that Cosmopolis stoics become aware that it is their civic duty to contribute to the well-being of humanity from wherever they stand in the world remembering how fleeting life is stoics advise thinking constantly about death but not out of morbid Obsession but as a way to stop fearing it and to remind ourselves that no one has life guaranteed when someone wants to treat a phobia the treatment usually consists of an exposure technique a person who wants to overcome their fear of spiders will first have to see photographs of spiders then videos then perhaps interact with a toy spider then they will have to see a spider inside a terrarium until finally they can hold a spider in their hand systematic exposure to a stimulus eventually makes that stimulus commonplace even boring therefore it makes sense for stoics to advise constantly thinking about death to lose fear of it Marcus Aurelius writes about it how you will be surprised by Death in your body and soul think about the brevity of life life in the abyss of future and past time in the fragility of all matter constantly thinking about the brevity of life not only has the effect of losing fear of our ultimate Destiny but also has the effect of making us feel a sense of urgency to do what we must do thinking about death predisposes us to take action soon because maybe there will be no next year maybe there will be no next month maybe there will be no next week life the only fruit of Earthly life is a Pious disposition and useful acts to the community life is brief we must seize the present with good judgment and Justice being so bear rather than relaxed makes use aware not only of our imminent death but also that all living beings will die one day including our family friends partners and children therefore we must seize every moment we spend with them aware that each hug each conversation could be the last we live in the present which is infinitely small the rest has already been lived or is uncertain there is no point in mentally getting stuck in the past nor does it make much sense to fear a future that may not come the present is all we have to take care of and help those around us and for stoics that is our duty as Citizens of Humanity I sincerely hope that this message has been useful to you I want to congratulate you greatly for having come this far and for having finished the video that means that you want to improve as a person if you liked the video leave your comment you don’t know what to comment comment I dare so I know you made it to the end if you are not yet subscribed to the channel what are you waiting for subscribe now and join us thank you for your attention until next time Warrior

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